Fundamental Care Provided by Nurses
The term ” fundamental ” implies, forming a necessary base or core; i.e of central importance. Its synonymous are basic, foundation, root or elementary etc. Hence, fundamental care means base or core care which is highly important to any individual. It refers to all aspects of care that is referred to as basic care.
Fundamental care in nursing is defined as the all aspect of basic/core care provided by nurses to their patients as per their need.
Fundamental care plays vital role in resolving patients problem , helping patient in curing from complex disease condition because major/big problems can be sought out by smaller steps I.e complicated problems can be cured out by the provision of simple basic care to the patients.
The Aims of providing fundamental care in nursing are :
- To identify patients problem and basic care required to them.
- To provide the identified need of the patient.
- To motivate and encourage patient in self care.
- To create familiar environment to the patient by building strong rapport with them.
- To help them to explore out their feelings by gaining their trust which helps in treating patient psychologically.
- To reduce sense of discomfort.
- To provide holistic care to the patient.
As mentioned earlier , fundamental care refers to the basic care.Hence the basic care provided by nurses to patient in hospital ward includes,
- Back Care
- Oral care
- Hair care
- Eye care
- Bed making
- Ensuring sense of comfort to the patient
- Providing psychological support,etc.
In Nursing, provision of care to the patient should be carried out in hierarchical manner which is known as Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs in nursing.
Maslow’s hierarchy of need is a theory of needs which was proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943 which represents a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom and then to the top in hierarchical order.
The Maslow’s hierarchy of need includes the following :
- Physiological needs = Physiological need is ranked as the high level of need which must be fulfilled first. Physiological needs are those needs which are required for human survival. It includes : breathing , water, food, sleep , clothing etc.
- Safety and security = After the fulfillment of physiological needs, there comes the safety and security needs which includes : personal security , emotional security, financial security , health and well being etc.
- Love and belongings = After physiological needs and safety needs are fulfilled, third level of need I.e love and belongings should be fulfilled which includes : friendship , intimacy, family etc.
- Self esteem = It is the fourth level of need which includes the need to have self esteem . It refers the need to be respected . It is the typical human desire to be valued and respected by everyone . Feeling of self esteem increases sense of self confidence , independence and freedom.
- Self actualization = ” What a man can be , he must be ” This quotation forms the basis for self actualization. It refers to the finding of one persons full potential and realization of that potential.
Thus, application of this hierarchy will help nurses to achieve in providing comprehensive fundamental care to the patient .
Hence, fundamental care in nursing are the basic components provided by the nurses to the patient required in enhancing patients health status , reducing disease condition and treating him/ her psychologically as it includes all the basic as well holistic and core care required to the patient as per their needs.